Information about Alopecia Aerate
Alopecia Aerate is a non-scarred hair loss type. Alopecia Aerate is hard to predict hair loss type, and treatments do not work on it always. Even the main reason is unknown, it is known that T lymphocytes attack to their own hair follicles.
It can be seen on many parts of the body in many different types.
Causes of Alopecia Aerate
Epidemiology – Even Alopecia Aerate can be encountered at any age, it is seen on people younger than 20 in almost 50% of cases. There is a 1.7 % risk of any person to encounter with Alopecia Aerate.
Genetic – There is a relation with family history of Alopecia Aerate in 42% of cases. Human leucocyte antigen on chromosome 6 is related with Alopecia Aerate.
It is thought Alopecia Aerate is related with Down’s and Turner Syndrome, since it is frequently encountered in those cases. It can be predicted that chromosome 21 is related with Alopecia Aerate. Alopecia Aerate is effected by environmental triggers such ah polygenic components and factors.
Related diseases are; allergic rhinitis, asthma and atopic dermatitis. Alopecia Aerate patients are tend to have atopy and thyroid diseases 2 times more than the other people.
It is seen more regularly on autoimmune diseases such as; lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, myasthenia gravis scleroderma, lichen planus.
Another disease is HIV+. It is determined that Alopecia Aerate is highly encountered on HIV patients.
Irregularity of immune system
It is claimed that Alopecia Aerate is an autoimmune disease occurred by interaction between HLA-DR antigens in hair follicle keratinocytes and T-cells.
Neuronal defects were determined on abnormal electroencephalographic readings (EEG) in Alopecia Aerate. In these cases; when patients touched and combed their hairs, they experienced itches and tingling.
Even it is considered that Alopecia Aerate is related with stress and mental disorders, clinical studies claim the opposite.
Tissues with Alopecia Aerate include trackless peribulbar lymphocytic infiltration. It is a classic finding seen on active periphery of Alopecia Aerate lesions.
Alopecia Aerate lesions characteristic feature is being oval and circular, and in shape of a worn or plain patch.
Lesions are pink or peach colored. It can be seen on both healthy hair and broken hair. Broken hair widen in the areas that are close to scalp. As mentioned above, itching, sensitivity and pain can even start along with lesion before the loss.
Types of Alopecia Aerate
Patched Alopecia Aerate – circular and oval patches of hair loss can be encountered as common.
- Reticular Alopecia Aerate – web patterned patched Alopecia Aerate type
- Ophiasis Alopecia Aerate – Seen as band
- Ophiasis inversus (sisaipho) – Seen as a slightly visible band.
- Diffuse Alopecia Aerate – Seen on all over the scalp
Alopecia Aerate can be classified by its coverage
- Alopecia Aerate – Partial loss
- Alopecia Totalis – Loss of 100% of hair
- Alopecia Universalis – Loss of whole hair on body. Such as eyebrow, beard, chest hair etc.
Alopecia Aerate Treatment Methods
Currently most of the treatments are targeted to remove symptoms of the disease, and cannot provide enough benefits for the exact solution. Immune modulation is still considered as basic method for Alopecia Aerate treatment.
Steroid injection into lesion for patients can provide hair growth in 2 to 6 weeks.
Treatment can be repeated every week for up to 3 sessions.
Minoxidil 5% gained acceptable success and provided hair growth in 40% of cases. On the other hand, minoxidil was ineffective on alopecia totalis and alopecia universalis cases.
Topical immune therapy provided significant advancements on chronic Alopecia aerate cases. Even it is successful on 50% of the cases, the side effects should be informed to patient in detail.